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Many of the narrative strategies practiced by Jewish Pieds-Noirs are similar if not the same as those of the larger group of writers. Jewish Pieds-Noirs Helene Cixous and Jacques Derrida, for example, provide interesting models for dealing with repetition and return in their works. Through showing the fractured images of Algeria, Cixous manages to displace a repossession of it while demonstrating Pied-Noir returns as a kind of recolonization.

Retroactive Nature of the Pied-Noir The term Pied-Noir has been and is now consistently used to refer to the French colonists who were bom in Algeria second generation and beyond. This retroactive use is invasive to the point that even historians make the mistake of retroactive labeling. At times this strategy of retroactive naming works advantageously for both the Pieds-Noirs themselves as well as for those who are against what the Pieds-Noirs represent as a group. This temporal confusion has advantageous outcomes for the Pieds-Noirs and French alike.

The retroactive naming of the Pieds-Noir is present in works by historians and Pieds-Noirs as well as by Pied-Noir historians. Because of this further dual use of the term as it is used by the Pieds-Noirs themselves, one may question whether splitting and simultaneity are part of Pied-Noir identity at its foundation.

The retroactive use becomes inseparable from the fiction o f Pied-Noir identity which is, in fact, maintained by recasting history through the present Pied-Noir perspective. Advantageous Identities The collective identity of this group is further complicated because it is strategically lodged between Algeria and France and neither the French nor the Algerians can accept this identity as it is perceived by the Pied-Noir.

Frangais de souche ont bien du mal a faire entrer dans leur propre histoire celle de la colonisation et de la decolonisation. This acceptance of a common identity and past together combined with the will to mix Pied-Noir history more appropriately - French colonial history into the history of France, unified the Pied-Noir struggle to be remembered and seen not as the culprits of colonization but as an innocent party who lived in the French colony. To the difference of some nostalgic writers, however, Lenoir tries to objectively criticize his compatriots in their racist attitudes and to understand the social structures in place in the colony En ce temps-la, il est vrai, on ne faisait pas de detail.

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Anne Lanta also writes to displace blame as she constantly describes herself as fair and loving to her native Algerian friends and servants. Ironically, this struggle to be correctly understood alongside the continual need to return to the past has once again recast history. In their attempts to deal with their displacement, the Pieds-Noirs have shifted the blame placed on them for colonization onto the metropolitan French. During this time many Pieds-Noirs began addressing their losses and established themselves as the only voice and thus the historical authority on Algeria.

Although not practiced by all Pieds-Noirs, the activity of blaming the French for their abandonment 36 Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner.

Philippe Laudenbach

That is to say, in shifting the blame from themselves to the French, many Pieds- Noirs have freed themselves from a sense of responsibility in colonization. They have created a new identity for themselves - that of a people who lived side-by-side the Algerian natives in a fraternal relationship. Although the retroactive labeling of the Pieds-Noirs along with the displacement o f blame represent a skewing o f Pied-Noir history, it is this constant looking backwards or returning that defines the identity of the Pied-Noir today. The group has struggled to remember its personal losses and to gain recognition for its role in French history especially as a result of its lost homeland.

The supposed confrontation with the past is particularly useful in their integration in France. The Pieds-Noirs, seeking to be respected and attempting to implant themselves into both French and Algerian histories, have taken up writing to propagate their stories. Many Pieds-Noirs write today, whether professionally or personally, in order to both remind themselves o f the way things were and to preserve their pasts for their future ancestors. This assumed fight against forgetting in such narratives furthers the self-justification process as it places the blame for forgetting the war onto the French.

Another impetus for this writing is the trauma experienced while leaving Algeria and the second trauma experienced when rejected in France. Again this ritualistic aspect of this memory relies on repetition. It is only recently that divergent memories are finding a place in the context of Algerias; and in an effort to layer histories of Algeria that this dissertation will incorporate divergent Pied-Noir memoirs that deconstruct the idea of a uniformed past. As these rewritings of the past enter on the literary or historical scene, they join a context of Pied-Noir writing that adds their voice to a larger community.

Each individual experience, however, reiterates elements of the common or collective experience, often in a similar style o f conformism in memory. While there are thousands of Algerias, through repetition of the same familiar touchstones of Algeria, a 38 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. One of the major strategies of Pied-Noir narratives today is to convince the readers of a certain form of history that the Pieds-Noirs experienced and that this history should necessarily be included in French history.

Critics such as Derderian, point out in no uncertain terms that these identity myths are a purposeful effort to propagate a certain image of the community that is politically advantageous: In the case of both the community of French settlers and that of the military, long established myths employed to interpret the Algerian past still function as powerful exculpatory or self-redeeming devices in the present.

Nos coeurs tordus

Mythical self-constructions of the pied-noir community as the dispossessed and damned people of Europe continue to help mitigate what Fanon denounced as the harsh reality of an inegalitarian colonial system based above all on fear and coercion. Self-victimization can function as a powerful galvanizing form of identity that many groups will discard only reluctantly. The discourse of victimization prevalent in their autobiographies is just one of the tools the community uses in swaying its readers. Necessary to the survival of Pied-Noir identity, the conflation of memory and history in autobiographical works allows the group to remain authoritative about its pasts.

As we have seen in the exploration of generational divisions for the Pieds-Noirs, whereas historical differences 39 Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner.

No one to date has taken into account the deformation of memory that takes place over time. The problematic of this strategy is that through the use o f repetition and the continual need to return to the past, many Pieds-Noirs have developed and practiced their stories in time to create versions of the past that suit their needs in the present.

The Pieds-Noirs propagate their story not only as individual accounts that represent the whole of the Pied-Noir community each one an authority on colonial Algeria and sometimes even present Algeria , but also out of the fear of being forgotten. As a result of this fear, there is a certain urgency in Pied-Noir writing today that is evident not only in their literature but also in their organizational meetings. Although a decade ago, Michel-Chich went so far as to question whether children of Pieds-noirs bom in France were also Pieds-Noirs, today it seems mostly clear that they are not.

Defined as they are those having lived in Algeria and who left as a result of the war , the Pieds- Noirs cannot include children who have experienced a sort of vicarious exile from mainstream France. This is doubtlessly a result of the disappearing stigma in France of being Pied-Noir that was heavy in the 60s and early 70s when much of the second generation was bom. The lack of understanding or interest from their own children, however, often makes the Pieds-Noirs even more desperate to share their experience.

Because of the fear of not being heard, Pied-Noir autobiographies are ever increasing on the market of historical literature.

For the specific history of the Pieds- Noirs, it is largely accepted that they should speak for themselves. Seuls les Pieds-Noirs peuvent legitimement parler de leur vie quotidienne en Algerie, et raconter ce que furent les faits, grands et petits, qui en ont constitue la trame. They are, in fact, encouraged that someone outside of their community is taking an interest in what they have to say. The need to convey their history is perhaps overcoming their sense o f protection of their past.

As long as the Pieds-Noirs dominate the historical market maintaining authority over Algeria and their work is not questioned even as it is produced now forty years after the war and often written as autobiography, the history of Algeria will remain obscured.

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What this means is that Pied-Noir histories or even Algerian histories that are written in an autobiographical style meant to represent the entire Pied-Noir 42 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. This critical look at the history of the war in specific has larger reaching applications for the history of Algeria on the whole because much of what the Pieds-Noirs have written has passed into history as a result of the immediate silence surrounding the war and because of the current popularity of this subject.

In their work, Manceron and Remaoun point out the dangers of memory serving as history: II est certes indispensable de cultiver la memoire de certains faits essentiels du passe, mais ne faut-il pas aussi prendre des precautions? The danger o f history lies in that it can silence memory and even emphasize a certain form of forgetting, as we have seen in the discussion of the Algerian War. As Stora 34 Cf. This method of needlework is founded on a progressive motion of return which continually leads the author to a preceding referent each time it takes a step towards the future.

The first part of the dissertation focuses on returns that the Pieds-Noirs undertake individually and collectively through memory, writing and physical return. Beginning then from what is most recent towards what lies behind, the first chapter will focus on physical returns, which have traditionally been viewed as the end solution for attenuating nostalgia, and then the dissertation will progress backwards towards imagined returns and the foundation of Pied-Noir identity.

Whereas the work on returns is centered on the more abstract relationship to Algeria that the Pieds-Noirs maintain in the present, the second part of the dissertation demonstrates the compulsion to repeat more directly as the manifestation of a rupture with the past. This part of the dissertation investigates repetition as it plays out through literary and psychological techniques.

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  7. Part one begins with an exploration of Pied-Noir identity as it lies in motion between France and Algeria. Many Pieds-Noirs return to Algeria with the hope of renewing contact with their homeland and during the process visit the past like tourists, without seeing the present of Algeria without them. Instead, the trip serves as a sort of comparison with their memories and of those of their compatriots. As it is impossible to return to the past, the Pieds- Noirs are more accurately participating in an archeological dig without recognizing that their community no longer inhabits Algeria as the dominant class.

    The Pieds-Noirs often portray themselves as half French and half Algerian as a means o f gaining authority in postcolonial France. This complicated position of dual inclusion has been chosen as a position of authority for most Pieds-Noirs, yet some have chosen instead to demonstrate their identity through a process of exclusions.

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    In the second part of the dissertation, repetition is demonstrated as both a literary and psychological technique that seeks to create stability while recasting history.